In this deliverable the sustainability of various fast pyrolysis bio-oil (FPBO) chains is studied. The FPBO products are used as renewable fuel in accustomed oil heaters for residential heating. The analysis is carried out for three residual feedstocks; forest residues, bark and straw. In addition, miscanthus is included to represent a cultivated energy crop. Straw and miscanthus can be considered potential feedstocks especially in Central-European conditions, whereas the forest residues and bark are typical feedstocks in Nordic countries. The sustainability evaluation includes a quantitative calculation of greenhouse gas emission (GHG) savings of the FPBO products according to the current European Union sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids, as well as according to the recently proposed Renewable Energy Directive for years 2021-2030 (RED2 proposal). The results show that the studied FPBO chains pass the GHG emission saving limits of 60% and 70% of the RED and RED2 proposal, respectively. The emission saving results vary between 80% and 94%, depending on the feedstock utilised.
Furthermore, also a qualitative sustainability check is made for the studied feedstocks. Sustainability indicators analysed are impacts on carbon stocks, biodiversity, and indirect land use change. Also the cascading use of biomass in discussed. The sustainability check is based on the current and proposed European Union sustainability criteria, the Commission impacts assessment studies and on other scientific literature. The results summarise potential sustainability risks related to each feedstock studied.
|D6.1 Sustainability chain evaluation|