Approach and methodology

In the figure below the steps in the development of an efficient, low emission, biomass residential heating system based on FPBO is schematically depicted. FPBO will be produced from different agro, herbaceous and woody biomass feedstocks. For each supply chain, a sustainability analysis will be carried out to identify sustainability and environmental risks. All solid and liquid biofuels have to meet the sustainability criteria as set in the Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC). Furthermore, the draft ILUC (Indirect Land Use Change) Directive COM(2012)595 lists biomass types with low ILUC impacts which have to be considered from an environmental and economic perspective.


By using the FPBO route the high ash content in the feedstock can be recovered during the production of FPBO, leading to low ash emissions by the residential heating system at the end-user. The legal and technical possibilities of mineral recycling will be assessed as well.

The development of an efficient small scale FPBO residential heating boiler requires a better understanding of FPBO combustion and spray parameters necessary for controlling and improving the system. This requires thermo-physical properties of both crude FPBOs and conditioned FPBOs. The information gained in the experimentation and modelling will be directly utilized in the characterization of the FPBO spray and combustion which is the basis of the optimization of the burner design.

The development of the residential scale burner suitable for FPBO will start with a MEKU burner which is a commercial available liquid fuel combustor, but is not directly applicable to firing FPBOs. The burner concept is based on a so called blue flame type leading to low emissions compared to standard yellow flame type burners. In order to achieve high efficiencies (class A) a full condensing boiler is used to recover the energy required for water evaporation.

Layout of the work packages and structure

The layout of the work packages and structure are the outcome from the approach and methodology mentioned above. The overall project has been divided into 8 logical work packages each covering a specific aspect of the development of the whole development chain, as depicted schematically in the figure below. The project consists mainly of two pillars; the standardization of FPBO for residential heating and development of a residential heating system for this standardized FPBO. Even the latest insights on Socio-Economical, Environmental, Business and Market issues are taken into account in the development process. Finally, a dedicated WP on Communication, Dissemination and Exploitation of results is implemented which is crucial to initiating the discourse within industry, end users and suppliers for the new enabling technologies provided by Residue2Heat.